The relationship ranging from outcrossing point and collective physical fitness was not tall (quadratic <a href=""></a> regression: F

For two forest kinds in Sri Lanka’s wet area forest, fruit set increased significantly which have outcrossing range, peaking from the intermediate-point inside-forest crosses (1–10 kilometer based on kinds). In crosses anywhere between woods occupying separate tree supplies, yet not, fruit place is actually rather quicker (otherwise almost very) for both varieties. Alternatively, seeds germination and you will seedling peak within step one year having Sh. cordifolia advised hybrid vigor in-between-forest crosses. The consequences of nearby-next-door neighbor mating ranged one of trees and you will variety; new imply exercise cost of nearby-neighbors mating in line with mating which have modestly so much more faraway natives is 45% for S. rubicundum and you will 0% for Sh. cordifolia. Alternatively, the newest exercise aftereffects of anywhere between-tree crossing have been big both for varieties (52 and 70% according to in this-forest crosses for similar one or two variety). Crossing effects reduced amongst the amounts away from fresh fruit lay and step one-yr-old seedling proportions; only the previous was high for types. Show indicate a strong possibility of biparental inbreeding despair within this tree forest communities and you may partial reproductive isolation certainly one of trees occupying the remainder tree reserves from inside the Sri Lanka’s moist region.

Inbreeding depression often is cited as the an inescapable outcome of anthropogenic disturbance so you can tropical forest (age.g., forest fragmentation, logging), in which principle predicts one to typical mating activities within already reduced-occurrence forest communities is managed to move on to help you prefer short-point crosses. Thus far, however, the consequences out-of increased near-neighbors mating getting populace physical fitness during the exotic trees possess but really to help you become quantified empirically. One or two important inquiries become managed is: Manage adults stop maturing seed products based on near-neighbors crosses and you can, if not, how complement try near-neighbor-derived progeny in line with anybody else? This research analyzes the effects out of near-neighbor mating in 2 tropical tree variety directly using exercise contrasting from crosses anywhere between nearest natives which have crosses of a whole lot more faraway mates.

Shorea cordifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) is a locally abundant main shelter types one to plants greatly at unusual supra-annual intervals (We. An excellent. U. N. Gunatilleke ainsi que al., unpublished research). Flowers with the kinds is light and you will small-lived, in addition to winged fruit is distribute of the wind or gravity. For the extremely restricted seeds dispersal, hereditary relatedness certainly near locals when you look at the pure forest is anticipated so you can getting highest. Inside logged forest at the Sinharaja, Sh. cordifolia always happens in clumps out of ?5–20 grownups, intermixed that have quicker stems (individual observance).

Research analysis

For both species, within-treatment variation among maternal trees in fruit set was substantial for all outcrosses involving pollen donors within Sinharaja Reserve. In contrast, variation in fruit set rate was very low for between-forest crosses (Fig. 2). For Sh. cordifolia, fruit set for the distant between-forest treatment ranged from only 0.5 to 0.6% and was significantly lower than the mean fruit set rate for all within-forest outcrossing treatments combined (mean = 2.71%, F1,58 = 9.94, P < 0.0003). For S. rubicundum, mean fruit set for the distant between-forest treatment (2.67%) was low relative to mean fruit set rate for all within-forest outcrossing treatments combined (mean = 5.97%). The difference was nearly significant (F1,58 = 3.78, P < 0.06).

For Sh. cordifolia, cumulative fitness was maximum at both the distant neighbor and distant within-forest treatments (Fig. 5). Peak cumulative fitness observed for these intermediate crossing treatments was 2 and 4.3 times the cumulative fitnesses of the nearest-neighbor and distant between-forest treatments, respectively, although these differences were not significant (Table 3B). dos,8 = 3.70, P = 0.073). Mean cumulative fitness of open-pollinated flowers exceeded that of all other hand-pollination treatments, again likely due to the detrimental effect of the hand-pollination procedure on fruit set in this species. As for fruit set, mean cumulative fitness (relative) of the distant between-forest treatment (mean = 0.12) was significantly lower than that of all within-forest outcrossed classes combined (mean = 0.51, F1,several = 8.77, P = 0.012).

Near-neighbors crossing perception

Near-neighbor crossing effects have been demonstrated for a number of coniferous species (Coles and Fowler, 1976; Park and Fowler, 1982, 1984; Latta et al., 1998), but only three studies have yielded evidence of near-neighbor crossing effects in woody angiosperms (Syzygium cormiflorum-Crome and Irvine, 1986; Schiedea spp.-Sakai, Karoly, and Weller, 1989; Eucalyptus globules-Hardner, Potts, and Gore, 1998). In another study suggestive of biparental inbreeding depression, mean fruit set rates were significantly lower for intraspecific crosses <0.5 km distance than for crosses >1 km distance for three subcanopy tree species (Inga spp.) in Costa Rica (Koptur, 1984). In fact, it may be that biparental inbreeding depression is common in natural populations of forest trees, but that estimation of its potential through experimental cross-pollinations has been limited to only a few species due to the obvious difficulty of working in the canopy. To my knowledge, there are no published reports of failed attempts to find near-neighbor crossing effects in natural populations of forest trees.

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